Professional sports organisations have been one of the earliest and highest profile adopters of Computer Vision (CV) technologies; with systems in use today considered accurate and reliable enough to replace or augment the referee's decision making.
This blog post details some research and development work Codethink conducted last year; building a low cost multi-camera sports tracking system. We specifically focus on camera space tracking on embedded platforms here, as well as running through some of the background and state of the art of Computer Vision.
A Very Short History
The field of Computer Vision has been the focus of research for a wide range of specialists since at least the 60s. A lot of early thinking was driven by Artificial Intelligence researchers, who were quite optimistic that they would make significant progress in the field. However, many of the approaches proposed were impractical at the time, which led to specialised, mathematically rigorous approaches to a number of well specified problems.
A good example of a more traditional CV algorithm built on these mathematical methods is the Scale Invariant Feature Transform algorithm, which uses the differences across a family of scale spaces (progressively smoothed versions of the same image) to identify features that are, as the name suggests, invariant to scale. This algorithm can be implemented efficiently and is useful for tracking large sets of features across a series of images using stochastic methods. Applications include; stitching panoramic images together; and generating point clouds to feed into Bundle Adjustment based 3D reconstruction systems.
The general approach to CV has until recently revolved around taking these established algorithms and solutions and combining them into a functional system. The popular OpenCV library has historically been a collection of implementations of these algorithms that you can plug and play with. The problem with this approach is the applications developed require a significant amount of engineering to build and configure, and all of this configuration, tweaking and integration results in systems that are not robust to changes. Traditional CV is hard. This isn't to say that the techniques developed are obsolete.
The State of the Art
Over the last decade, a different tack has been outperforming traditional computer vision approaches in a number of benchmarks. Convolution Neural Networks, enabled by the development in parallel compute hardware (GPUs), have proven to be more accurate, general and robust in a wide range of problem spaces. The most striking example of this is in the image classification problem - in the simplest case, an application that can answer the question "is this a cat or a dog?" when presented with an image:
This is a very hard problem to solve with traditional approaches. You would have to manually identify what features are important when distinguishing a cat and a dog, and you would have to design a system that could extract those features from an arbitrary image and then perform some form of comparison against a baseline.
This is effectively the approach that all of the modern image classifiers and detection CNN network architectures take; they (i) codify what features are important to look for in an image, (ii) extract those features from an image and (iii) compare the feature against a baseline truth. However, the nature of neural networks means that the actual encoding of the information "what features make a dog/cat", etc., can be done automatically using generic tooling in a process called "training" - where you present the network with example, labelled data and use back-propagation and gradient descent to set the weights in the network and minimise a cost function.
A Note on CNNs
There obviously isn't space to go over in detail the theory behind Neural Networks (NNs) - an excellent resource to get the fundamentals is a book called Deep Learning. It's free, and the content is accessible.
However, it's interesting to discuss the nature of Convolution Neural Networks (specifically convolution layers), as they show how the line between traditional CV and more modern approaches is blurrier that it first appears.
A Neural Network is a set of matrices, each matrix describing an operation on the data fed into it. These matrices are called layers, and there are multiple types of layer - the type dictating how the values of the matrix determine the transformation of the data. The data typically flows through these matrices concurrently - known as Feedforward NNs. If there is feedback of data, then those networks are referred to as Recurrent NNs. This image gives you an indication of how a NN works in the example of image classification. As the data propagates through the network, each subsequent layer is able (after training) to pick up on more and more complex structures in the image.
image from www.deeplearningbook.org
As with many great ideas, the power of this approach is that it's modular, and you can, in principle, build a network of arbitrary complexity. It's obvious/implicit in the inclusion of the word "neural" in the name that it's conceivable that when the hardware becomes sufficiently advanced, that you could emulate real neural systems.
The most important layer for a majority of image processing is the convolution layer. A convolution is a mathematical operation, and a convolution layer has many of the same properties of that operation, even though in practice it's not usually a strict convolution. A convolution layer is very similar to many "kernel" methods that are used in CV to extract features - where you scan a small "kernel" matrix over an image, performing matrix multiplication and generating a new image. A convolution layer can be thought of as this same process, but where the form of the kernel is learnable.
image from www.deeplearningbook.org
Since the matrix underlying the layer is much smaller than the data being fed in, it's very efficient at encoding the required filter properties - enabling larger networks than would otherwise be possible with denser layer types.
A number of CNN architectures have been developed over the last few years for detecting (identifying a given region of an image as an instance of a thing) a range of objects in an image. The Recursive-CNN (RCNN) network, for example, repurposes an object classifier and runs regions of the same image through the classifier multiple times to work out which bounding boxes have the least prediction uncertainty. On the other hand, the YOLO (You Only Look Once) network actually breaks down the image internally into a grid and only runs the image through the network once - resulting in lower inference times.
Camera-Space Tracking on a TX2
In 2019/20, Codethink worked to develop a system to track balls and players for one of our clients. Using multiple cameras, this system was designed from the ground up to have:
- low installation cost
- low complexity (maintenance cost)
- low latency
We wanted to create a platform that provided access to high quality live tracking data at all levels of sport. By targeting low cost, low latency and low complexity, we imposed certain limits on the hardware and architecture. It was clear that the architecture would need to be minimally dependent on systems external to the stadium, and that the easiest way to make something scalable to different numbers of cameras and different configurations was to make the cameras do the tracking in camera space themselves.
The above requirements drove the selection of a camera with a high quality, high definition sensor, configurable optics and an onboard NVIDIA Jetson TX2 SoC. The cameras themselves would generate camera space tracking data, and forward that information (along with video streams) to a centralised triangulation system (which in our initial prototype was in fact one of the cameras themselves).
The initial work went into developing a robust RANSAC inspired triangulation algorithm for the 4+ camera problem, simultaneously generating a mapping of objects between the cameras and determining the 3D position of those objects by minimising back projection error.
We then explored some of the existing open source solutions to the embedded camera space tracking problem. We found that the best performing general tracking solutions at that time (for example) did not run at a practical frame rate on the resource constrained TX2s. Even running a CNN detector stand-alone, the best frame rates for detection were around 7 fps. This wasn't good enough considering the speed of the sport we were developing the system for.
This motivated us to develop our own hybrid system, that would combine the robustness and precision of a CNN and the efficiency of traditional CV techniques.
The driving idea was an attempt to emulate human vision - with a high bandwidth system processing movement and identifying regions of interest (peripheral vision) and a lower bandwidth system that can refine your idea of what those areas of interest actually are (visual gaze).
To detect areas of interest, or candidate blobs, we use a combination of background subtraction, edge detection and kernel filtering. This process runs on the CPU with minimal overhead, such that the candidate blobs are generated at the target 30fps.
To further refine these blobs as and when possible, we employ a variation on the YOLOv3 network (a high accuracy, low inference time detection CNN).
image from https://pjreddie.com/darknet/yolo/
In order to stitch these two parallel processes together, we use the very powerful gstreamer framework to build a pipeline with branches feeding each of the subsystems. The system also performantly encodes and streams the video data over the network in a number of formats.
A set of blobs (bounding boxes with some additional metadata) are then passed between each sub-system, accumulating refinement information if the CNN is ready to accept a frame (otherwise the leaky queue drops frames), otherwise just forwarding the rough candidate blobs to the tracker - in which case the tracker uses historical data and some heuristics to determine the most likely refinement of the candidate blob.
The results from our simple system are encouraging - we are able to track players with a high degree of bounding box precision at 30 fps. The tracker is entirely dynamic, and any fluctuations in inference time are smoothed out by the motion based candidate blob generation and the Kalman filtering of the tracks built from the blobs.
Note that since we developed our system, a tracking system taking a very similar approach to ours (combining traditional tracking techniques and a YOLO object detection) has been released, with similar performance characteristics.
We are working on releasing an open source version of our work, and we will also look to benchmark our approach against these more recent developments.
Footage in the screen shots generated using Gameplay Football.
- Bundle Adjustment
- Deep Leaning MIT
- Deep SORT
- Kalman Filter
Related to the blog post:
- Does the "Hypocrite Commits" incident prove that Linux is unsafe?
- ABI Stability in freedesktop-sdk
- Why your organisation needs to embrace working in the open-source ecosystem
- RISC-V User space access Oops
- What is Remote Asset API?
- Running a devroom: FOSDEM 2021 Safety and Open Source
- Meet the codethings: Understanding BuildGrid and BuildBox with Beth White
- Streamlining Terraform configuration with Jsonnet
- Bloodlight: Designing a Heart Rate Sensor with STM32, LEDs and Photodiode
- Making the tech industry more inclusive for women
- Bloodlight Case Design: Lessons Learned
- Safety is a system property, not a software property
- RISC-V: Codethink's first research about the open instruction set
- Meet the Codethings: Safety-critical systems and the benefits of STPA with Shaun Mooney
- Why Project Managers are essential in an effective software consultancy
- FOSDEM 2021: Devroom for Safety and Open Source
- Meet the Codethings: Ben Dooks talks about Linux kernel and RISC-V
- Here we go 2021: 4 open source events for software engineers and project leaders
- Xmas Greetings from Codethink
- Call for Papers: FOSDEM 2021 Dev Room Safety and Open Source Software
- Building the abseil-hello Bazel project for a different architecture using a dynamically generated toolchain
- Advent of Code: programming puzzle challenges
- Improving performance on Interrogizer with the stm32
- Introducing Interrogizer: providing affordable troubleshooting
- Improving software security through input validation
- More time on top: My latest work improving Topplot
- Cycling around the world
- Orchestrating applications by (ab)using Ansible's Network XML Parser
- My experience of the MIT STAMP workshop 2020
- Red Hat announces new Flatpak Runtime for RHEL
- How to keep your staff healthy in lockdown
- Bloodlight: A Medical PPG Testbed
- Bringing Lorry into the 2020s
- How to use Tracecompass to analyse kernel traces from LTTng
- Fixing Rust's test suite on RISC-V
- The challenges behind electric vehicle infrastructure
- Investigating kernel user-space access
- Consuming BuildStream projects in Bazel: the bazelize plugin
- Improving RISC-V Linux support in Rust
- Creating a Build toolkit using the Remote Execution API
- Trusting software in a pandemic
- The Case For Open Source Software In The Medical Industry
- My experiences moving to remote working
- Impact of COVID-19 on the Medical Devices Industry
- COVID-19 (Coronavirus) and Codethink
- Codethink develops Open Source drivers for Microsoft Azure Sphere MediaTek MT3620
- Codethink partners with Wirepas
- Testing Bazel's Remote Execution API
- Passing the age of retirement: our work with Fortran and its compilers
- Sharing technical knowledge at Codethink
- Using the REAPI for Distributed Builds
- An Introduction to Remote Execution and Distributed Builds
- Gluing hardware and software: Board Support Packages (BSPs)
- Engineering's jack of all trades: an intro to FPGAs
- Bust out your pendrives: Debian 10 is out!
- Why you should attend local open source meet-ups
- Acceptance, strife, and progress in the LGBTIQ+ and open source communities
- Codethink helps York Instruments to deliver world-beating medical brain-scanner
- Codethink open sources part of staff onboarding - 'How To Git Going In FOSS'
- Getting into open source
- How to put GitOps to work for your software delivery
- Open Source Safety Requirements Analysis for Autonomous Vehicles based on STPA
- Codethink engineers develop custom debug solution for customer project
- Codethink contributes to CIP Super Long Term Kernel maintenance
- Codethink creates custom USB 3 switch to support customer's CI/CD pipeline requirements
- Codethink unlocks data analysis potential for British Cycling
- MIT Doctor delivers Manchester masterclass on innovative safety methodology
- Balance for Better: Women in Technology Codethink Interviews
- Introducing BuildGrid
- Configuring Linux to stabilise latency
- GUADEC 2018 Talks
- Hypervisor Not Required
- Full archive